In this article, we are going to explain the concept and principles of teaching. Teaching is a process that facilitates learning. Teaching is the specialized application of knowledge, skills and attitudes designed to provide unique service to meet the educational needs of the individual and of society. Although the work of teachers typically takes place in a classroom setting, the direct interaction between teachers and students is the single most important element in teaching.
Concept and Principles of Teaching
Concept of Teaching
The concept of teaching will be more clear through the definition of teaching given by different scholars-
According to H.C Marrison (1943), “ Teaching is an intimate contact between a more mature personality and a less mature, one which is designed to further the education of the latter”
According to John Broubacher (1939), “Teaching is an arrangement and manipulation of a situation in which there are gaps and obstructions which an individual with seeking to overcome and from which he will learn in course of doing so”
According to B.O Smith(1960), “ Teaching is a system of action intended to produce learning”
According to Burton (1963), “Teaching is the stimulation, guidance, direction and encouragement of learning”
Characteristics/ Nature of Teaching
- Teaching is a complex social phenomenon. It is greatly influenced by social factors. The social and human factors are dynamic, not static and therefore teaching is not a fundamental concept.
- Teaching is both art as well as signs. Art is called for exercises of talent and creativity signs because it is a collection of techniques, procedures and skills that can be systematically studied and described and improved.
- Teaching is a professional activity involving the teacher and the students and results in the development of the student.
- Teaching is what a teacher does with his student for focusing the letter to learn something.
- Teaching is a system of actions which are varied in form and are related to content and pupil’s behaviour in context with the prevailing physical and social conditions.
- Teaching can be observed, analysed and assessed through teacher behaviour, pupil-teacher interaction and the changes brought in the behaviour of the pupils.
- Teaching is highly dominated by communication skills.
- Teaching is an interactive process carried out for the attainment of some specific progress objectives.
- Teaching may have various forms like formal and informal teaching, showing or doing descriptive or remedial, formational or informational.
- Teaching is a specialized task and may be taken as a set of competent skills for the realization of a specified set of instructional objectives.
Principles of Teaching
General principles of teaching
- Principle of definiteness of goals or objectives: Teaching should start with defining aim and objective. The teacher and students must be clear about the goals of teaching-learning. It helps them to be on the track. When the goals and objectives of the lesson are determined properly it will help the teacher to plan, execute and evaluate the phase of the teaching-learning process.
- Principle of Planning: Planning in teaching is a very important step, teachers must plan properly before coming to actual classroom teaching. The successful teaching-learning process highly depends on teachers’ planning and execution in the class. The planning includes a lesson plan, Teaching aids, Strategy and Methods of teaching.
- Principle of flexibility and elasticity: The teaching strategy must be flexible. It needs to be changed according to the classroom situations and the needs of students. Teachers should be imaginative and resourceful people so that they can adapt strategies according to the needs of the classroom environment.
- Principle of utilization past experience: In effective teaching, the teacher must start a lesson with questions to know about the student’s previous knowledge. Prior knowledge could reduce the cognitive load leading to better learning engagement.
- Principle of child centeredness: The modern education system is child centeredness. According to the National Curriculum Framework (NCF), the students are the active participant and the teacher are the facilitator. So the teaching should be according to the child’s needs, abilities and interests and teaching should be activity-based so that students can be learned with the active participants.
- Principle of making provision for individual differences: As we know every child is different from each other. The teacher should be kept in mind Individual differences while teaching and he should teach according to the children’s abilities and interests.
- Principle of linking with actual life: According to the NCF-2005 the learning should go beyond the four walls of the school. Teaching should be linked with real-life experiences of everyday life. It not only motivates students but also makes them easy to learn a lesson. In teaching, lesson teacher should give an appropriate examples with the students day to day life activities
- Principle of correlating with other subjects: The correlating of one subject with another subject is very important in order to create interest in the subject. In effective teaching, the teacher gives correlates one subject with another to the overall development of the students.
- Principle of effective strategies and instructional materials: Effective strategies in teaching are very important. The teacher should adopt effective teaching methods so that students can gain maximum knowledge and the teaching aids and other instructional materials should be used effectively.
- Principle of active participation and involvement: In modern-day education, teaching and learning must be child centredness so that children can actively participate in learning. The teacher should use the activity-based teaching method so that the maximum number of students can be involved and active participants in the teaching-learning process.
- Principle of conducive environment and proper control: The teacher should create such a conducive environment so that it becomes a motivating factor for learning. There must be proper arrangement of light, furniture and other needful resources. The teacher should maintain proper order and discipline by being sympathetic but at the same time, he must be firm.
Psychological principles of teaching
- Principle of motivation and interest
- Principle of repetition and exercise
- Principle of change, rest and recreation
- Principle of feedback and reinforcement
- Principle of sympathy and cooperation
- Principle of providing training and senses
- Principle of utilizing group dynamics
- Principle of encouraging self-learning
- Principle of fostering creativity and self-expression
- Principle of remedial teaching
We can conclude from the above points, that principles of teaching are very important to make the classroom interesting, every teacher must have knowledge about the above principles of teaching. Principles of teaching help teaching in every step of teaching including teaching strategy, methods of teaching, and the use of appropriate teaching aids. If teachers follow all the principles students can be motivated and learn easily.