Nature, Scope and Principles of Guidance-B.ed Notes

If you are looking for B.Ed Notes on the Meaning, Nature, Scope and Principles of Guidance and the Need and Importance of Guidance in the present-day context then you are here at the right place. We provide tailored notes for the students. You can learn more about Guidance and Counselling at

Meaning of Guidance

The term guidance means to direct or provide an Assistant or guidance to someone who needs help. Guidance is provided at all levels to human beings during their whole life by an experienced person to an individual who needs guidance or help. Guidance can solve personal, vocational and educational or any other problems for a person unable to solve his own.

The synonyms of ‘to guide’ are to lead, to conduct, to regulate, to direct, to steer, to show, to channel and to point.

Guidance involves personal help given by someone who is experienced in a particular field, it is designed to assist a person in where he wants to go, what he wants to do or how he can best accomplish his purpose. It assists him in solving problems that arise in his life. It does not solve problems for the individual but helps him to solve them.

Definition of Guidance.

The definition of Guidance is given by different scholars. We find out the best definition for you

  • According to Ruth Strang-Guidance is a process of helping every individual, through his own efforts, to discover and develop his potential for personal happiness and social usefulness.
  • According to John Brewer– Guidance is a process through which an individual is able to solve his problems and pursue a path suited to his abilities and aspirations.
  • According to Woodworth– Guidance helps an individual to develop his personality and enables him to serve society to the best of his capabilities and talents.

Nature of Guidance

The nature of guidance are –

  1. Guidance is a process: It enables an individual to discover himself in the most satisfying and positive manner. It provides direction to enable an individual to control his potentialities, abilities, interestss and aptitudes.
  2. Guidance is education itself: It aims to educate individuals to understand themselves, unfolding their potentialities to their maximum so that they may eventually prove themselves to be adjusted and programmatic members of the community. Guidance, therefore, is a significant education procedure. It is in short education itself
  3. Holistic Development of an Individual: Guidance aims at the all-round development of an Individual. It is aim is not just to achieve academic excellence for an individual. It focuses on social, physical, Mental, Emotional etc. aspects of the development of an individual.
  4. Guidance is a continuous process: Guidance is a dynamic and non-stop process. Individuals need guidance from birth to death in different aspects to understand themselves and learning to use maximum his own capabilities, interests and other abilities.
  5. Guidance based on Individual difference: Guidance is based on the principle that every individual is different from each other and every person is unique in their abilities. It emphasizes the fact that every person needs to show respect as the dignity of an individual is supreme. The respect and dignity of a person should not be affected by factors like Age, Gender, Caste and Class of an Individual.
  6.  Guidance is based on cooperation: The individual who needs help must cooperate with the person who provides help for the best results. Guidance cannot be forcefully inculcated into any person. In addition, if guidance is forced upon someone, the person may not cooperate and may even become stubborn
  7. Guidance based on Individual Behavioral Process: Guidance affects the behaviour of an individual and enables a person to better control his behaviour in terms of like, dislike, weakness and so on. According to Carter V. Good- Guidance is a process of dynamic interpersonal relationship design to influence the attitudes and subsequent behaviour of a person.
  8. The universality of Guidance: Guidance is for all. Every person needs guidance at all stages of life from childhood to old age. A person needs guidance for solving problems to adjust with family members as well as in society.
  9. Guidance related to Life:  It contributes formally and informally to life because the life experiences both formal and informal occasions. A person gets informal guidance from his friends, family members, and relatives while formal guidance sought from organized school guidance services and other organized guidance services
  10. Helpful in Adjustment: Guidance helps the person in the adjustment in different situations. This process allows learners to adjust to their different types of problems. In this way, The nature of Guidance is to provide new energy to the demoralized person by adjusting himself to different problematic situations through the process of guidance.

Scope of Guidance

The scope of guidance is increasing with the advancement of Science and Technology, embracing all spheres of life and providing facilities for it. The scope of guidance mainly focuses on Vocational, Educational and Personal Guidance

Educational Guidance

Guidance is necessary for the field of Education due to the advancement of science and Technology, need Specialized assistance in the choice of subjects such as laboratories, libraries, workshops and the development of effective study habits. Now Education is based on Learning without proper assistance it’s not possible to execute properly in the field of education. The guidance also need for the children to the adjustment of school life with other activities

Vocational Guidance:

Assistant is required in meeting the certain problems  such as

  • Relating to the choice of vocation
  • Preparation for it
  • Entering the job
  • Achieving Adjustment to it

The guidance also helps in some specific areas are-

  • Making individual to familiar with the world of  work and with its diverse requirements and
  • To place at the disposal of the individual all possible aids in making a correct appraisal of his strength and weakness in relation to jobs requirements offered by his environment

Personal Guidance

Personal guidance is associated with individual personal adjustment in the sphere of life. It mainly focuses on the individual’s adjustment to his social and emotional problems.

  • To guide the individual to develop his life goals that are socially desirable and individually satisfying
  • To help an individual to plan his life  so that these goals may be attained
  • To assist an individual to grow consistently in their ability to adjust himself creatively to his developing life goals.
  • To help an individual to grow in the ability to live with others so effectively that he may promote their development and their own worthy purposes.

To help him grow in self-directive ability

The scope of guidance operation in school is to deal with-

  • Personal and social relations of the individual in school
  • Relation of the individual to the school curriculum and
  • Relation of the individual to the educational and vocational requirements and opportunities
Also Read: Difference between Guidance and Counselling

Principles of Guidance

Guidance is to help one to adjust to the abilities, interests and needs of society. In other words, it means helping a person to develop in the desired direction and to orient him according to the needs and demands of changing times and Society.

Crow and Crow have described the principles of Guidance. Some of the basic principles of Guidance are-

  1. Principle of Continuity: Guidance is a continuous process. Guidance is required for every individual at any stage in the process of the life cycle. It starts from childhood and continues till death. Guidance is not a service that begins and terminates at a specific time or place. It is a continuous process.
  2. Principle of all-round development of the individual: In order to develop a person’s personality, it is necessary to develop each and every aspect of personality. Hence the guidance service should follow the principles in which attention is paid towards the all-around development of the individual.
  3. Principle of Individual Differences: Every individual is different in their physical, mental, social and emotional development. Guidance services must recognize these differences and guide each individual according to their specific needs.
  4. Principle of Self-direction: Guidance gives importance to self-direction. The main idea of guidance is to develop the individual so that he/she no longer finds it necessary to seek guidance. The guidance makes the individual better adjusted to his environment and leads him to self-direction.
  5. Principle of cooperation: Guidance is based on cooperation. Guidance depends on mutual cooperation. No one can be forced to seek or offer guidance.
  6. Principle of evaluation: The guidance program should be made available in terms of its effectiveness and improvements. Evaluation is essential for the formation of new goals or re-drafting the existing goals.
  7. Guidance is flexible: The principle of the guidance is flexible according to individual and community needs.
  8. Guidance for all: The main principle of guidance is it is not for a specific person but it is for all or it should be all because, at every step of life, a person needs guidance. Practically this wrong concept was developed that guidance is to be given to only mal-adjusted persons. But due to some difficult situations, guidance service is restricted to those people only who give up their studies or remain unsuccessful. However, according to this principle, the facility of guidance should be extended to a maximum number of persons. Every member of society is to be made to feel that there is sufficient provision of guidance for him.
  9. Principle of Organized Activity: Guidance is an organized activity. Guidance is not only an incidental activity. It has a definite purpose to achieve. It is a systematic and well-organized activity.
  10. Principle of True Function: It is the function of guidance to help a person to formulate and accept worthwhile and attainable goals of behaviour, and to apply these objectives in the conduct of his affairs.
  11. Principle of Adjustment: Guidance touches every aspect of individual life, It is associated with individual physical, mental and social, with his adjustment at home, school, society and vocation.
  12. Principle of Responsibility: Parents and teachers have a great responsibility in the execution of the work of guidance. The responsibility for guidance should be centred on a qualified and trained person, who is the head of the guidance centre

Need and Importance of Guidance in Today’s Context

The need for guidance existed at all times. Moreover, the need for guidance is universal. In this section, we focus on the Need and Important of Guidance in the Present Day context.

  1. Increase in the range of individual differences among school-going children: After the implementation of RTE-2009, Free and Compulsory education in the age group of 14 years. Enrolment in the school is increasing with children from different backgrounds. This result is that we found a wider range of individual differences in the abilities, aspirations and achievements of the pupils. Understanding the differential needs and abilities of the children is essential for modifying the school programme for the best possible enfoldment of the student’s potentialities. This is possible only through the introduction of guidance services in our school programmes.
  2. Qualitative Improvement of Education: With the recent advancement of science and technology, there is a greater demand for Quality people, we can make quality people by providing quality education with advanced technology. Guidance is very necessary to developing the curriculum and meet the present-day quality education.
  3. Different stages of Development: Human Development is can be divided into childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Children are facing more problems during the adolescence period, it is a period where rapid changes in physical, Mental and emotional development. Proper guidance is necessary for adolescents to cope with these problems.
  4. Vocationalisation of Education: Improvement of vocational efficiency is one of the major aims of Education. In the NPE-2020 more emphasis on the introduction of vocational subjects in school. The vocational subjects like art, craft, Agriculture, Technical and commercial courses. Vocational subjects are practical courses Guidance is essential to vocationalisation of education
  5. Expanding Complexity of the World of Work: There has been a tremendous increase in the variety of jobs due to the development of industrialization and mechanization in every aspect of life. Thus there is a problem of choice. It is highly important to acquaint secondary school students with this variety of jobs and with their different requirements. This is possible only by providing organized guidance services in the school system of our country
  6. Occupational Awareness: A well-organised Guidance is very important in today’s context to provide occupational awareness among children. Students must be aware of the various type of jobs available and Career options so that students can choose courses according to their needs and interest.
  7. Changed Economic Pattern of the Country: The economic pattern of the country changes rapidly. In the present-day context, we need more Doctors, Engineers, industrialists and bankers etc to meet the growing demand of a country like India. If proper guidance is not introduced in the secondary levels in the choice of studies and various vocations the nation will remain poor and our youth will continue to be frustrated and disgusted
  8. Proper use of Leisure Time: Today many youths waste their time with various unsocial activities. Proper Guidance is required to utilize their leisure time for useful activities
  9. Changes in the Conditions of Industry and Labour: Fast changes are taking place, today in the conditions of industry and labour. Specialization has become the word of the present age. Moreover, professions have multiplied in numbers and it has become difficult for the common man to make the right choice. Hence it has become essential to get the help of guidance services in the school.
  10. Improvement in the status of Women: Due to the influx of women in almost all spheres including active defence service, more and more women are taking up jobs. Because of the Double responsibility of home and Office, women are facing lots of problems like anxiety and stress. They need guidance to adjust to this changing scenario, especially in a male-dominated society


Guidance is very important in all aspects of life. Guidance is a systematic, continuous, professional process of assisting individual pupils with particular needs and problems in the areas of school progress, personal-social relations and educational-vocational orientation. In the present-day context, guidance is required to provide proper awareness about job and career opportunities.


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